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Principles Of Klystrons, Traveling Wave Tubes, ...

Terahertz (THz) technology has tremendous application prospects in high-speed wireless communication, high-resolution synthetic aperture radar imaging, biomedical diagnosis, and space exploration1,2,3,4. The study of THz radiation is one of the most important research topics in this field5. Benefiting from the energy conversion mechanisms of electron beams and electromagnetic waves6, vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) are well suited for generating high-power THz radiation. Of all the THz VEDs, THz traveling wave tubes (TWTs) yield superior performance in terms of bandwidth and power capacity7. Therefore, THz TWTs have immense application potential in THz electromagnetic systems.

Principles of Klystrons, Traveling Wave Tubes, ...

A brief internment as an enemy alien early in World War II enabled Kompfner to pursue studies in physics with interned German physicists. He was then released, and more or less drafted to the Physics Department of the University of Birmingham, where the British Admiralty had set up a secret tube-research center under Professor M. L. Oliphant. Kompfner was assigned to develop a low-noise klystron amplifier. He spent two discouraging years building klystrons before he invented the traveling-wave tube in 1943. In all, Kompfner served with the Admiralty from 1941 through 1950, as Principal Scientific Officer, and as Distinguished Scientist from 1946. From 1950 to 1951 he was employed at Oxford and as a consultant to the English Electric Valve Company. He received his D. Phil in physics from Oxford in 1951.

In December 1951, Kompfner went to Bell Laboratories. For a number of years he worked chiefly on microwave tubes, including traveling-wave tubes and backward wave oscillators, which he conceived independently of others. Later, his interests broadened. He had a leading role in initiating and carrying through the Echo Satellite experiment, and he directly supervised the group who built the east-coast terminal (which also found use in the Telstar experiment). Kompfner made original contributions in a number of fields, including antennas, and was deeply involved, among other things, in optical communications. He was an associate executive director of research and communications sciences at Bell Labs from 1962 until his retirement in 1973. Afterward, he held teaching positions in applied physics at Stanford University and engineering sciences at Oxford University.

5. In its simplest form, a "cathode" is an electrode sealed in an electron tube and essential for its operation. When the tube is operating, heat is provided to generate electrons from the cathode. These electrons under the influence of suitable voltages then travel through the tube to another electrode called an anode. The impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes involved in this litigation are generally used in highly sophisticated microwave vacuum tubes, such as magnetron tubes, traveling wave tubes, backward wave oscillator tubes and klystron tubes. These tubes are widely used in radar systems and for communication, identification, testing and other purposes. The cathode has been referred to as "the heart" of microwave tubes such as magnetrons. [Rittner Tr. 68-70, 244-6; Nowogrodzki Tr. 429-31, 441-3, 449, 451; Cronin Tr. 1226; PX-1F, -44]

66. The "Telstar" and the "Comsat" communications satellite systems which beam television signals between distant cities and continents contain traveling wave tube amplifiers using Philips cathodes in the ground stations which receive the television signals transmitted from the satellites in outer space. [Rittner Tr. 240-6; PX-1P, -1T] 041b061a72


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