Teen (18 19)
GDL systems exist in all U.S. states and the District of Columbia (D.C.), but the strength of GDL laws varies by state. GDL systems provide longer practice periods, limit driving under high-risk conditions for newly licensed drivers, and require greater participation from parents as their teens learn to drive. Research has consistently demonstrated that GDL systems are effective for reducing teen crashes and deaths.36,44,45 For example, a meta-analysis including 14 different studies about GDL systems found that GDL systems are associated with reductions of about 19% for injury crashes and about 21% for fatal crashes for 16-year-olds.44
teen (18 19)
Parents can play an important role in keeping teens safe on the road. Some studies indicate that parental monitoring and involvement can help reduce risky driving behaviors and increase safe driving behaviors among teen drivers.36,43,54,55
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety publishes a list of affordable vehicles that meet important safety criteria for teens. They also recently released a research paper explaining the benefits of newer vehicle technologies, like crash avoidance features and teen driver-specific technologies. These technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce teen crashes, injuries, and deaths.
Parents, pediatricians, and communities can find more information on how to keep teens safe on the road at www.cdc.gov/ParentsAretheKey. You will find free materials including a Parent-Teen Driving Agreement.
Background: Identifying early pre-teen predictors of adolescent weight gain and the development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at age 18-19 y could provide avenues for prevention.
Conclusions: Pre-teen IFG, insulin resistance (and insulin), and rapidly increasing insulin resistance during adolescence identifies girls who are at greater risk of future IFG and T2DM. In addition, insulin resistance, interacting with high-fat diets, identifies girls who are at risk of greater weight gain. These findings could open avenues to primary prevention of obesity, IFG, and T2DM in children.
In the United States, teenagers drive less than all but the oldest people, but their numbers of crashes and crash deaths are disproportionately high. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (2020). [Unpublished analysis of April 1, 2016 - March 31, 2017 data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Household Travel Survey, General Estimates System, and Fatality Analysis Reporting System]. The fatal crash rate per mile driven for 16-19 year-olds is nearly 3 times the rate for drivers ages 20 and over. Risk is highest at ages 16-17.
Beginning in the mid-1990s, all states adopted graduated licensing systems, which phase in full driving privileges. National studies of graduated licensing found that strong laws were associated with substantially lower fatal crash rates and substantially lower insurance claim rates among young teen drivers covered by the laws. Strong restrictions on nighttime driving and teen passengers, as well as raising the licensing age, reduced rates of fatal crashes and insurance collision claims. McCartt, A. T., Teoh, E. R., Fields, M., Braitman, K. A., & Hellinga, L. A. (2010). Graduated licensing laws and fatal crashes of teenage drivers: A national study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 11, 240-248.Trempel, R. E. (2009). Graduated driver licensing laws and insurance collision claim frequencies of teenage drivers. Highway Loss Data Institute.
A total of 2,738 teenagers ages 13-19 died in motor vehicle crashes in 2020. This is 69 percent fewer than in 1975 and 14 percent more than in 2019. The increase from 2019 to 2020 was larger among males than females. About 2 of every 3 teenagers killed in crashes in 2020 were males. Since 1975, teenage crash deaths have decreased more among males (71 percent) than among females (61 percent).
In 2020, teenagers accounted for 7 percent of motor vehicle crash deaths. They comprised 9 percent of passenger vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) occupant deaths among all ages, 4 percent of pedestrian deaths, 3 percent of motorcyclist deaths, 8 percent of bicyclist deaths and 14 percent of all-terrain vehicle rider deaths.
Seventy-nine percent of teenage crash deaths in 2020 were passenger vehicle occupants. The others were pedestrians (8 percent), motorcyclists (6 percent), bicyclists (3 percent), riders of all-terrain vehicles (2 percent) and people in other kinds of vehicles (3 percent). The percentage of crash deaths that were passenger vehicle occupants is lowest for age 13 (54 percent) and highest for age 17 (84 percent).
In 2020, 56 percent of the deaths of teenage passengers in passenger vehicles occurred in vehicles driven by another teenager. Among deaths of passengers of all ages, 15 percent occurred when a teenager was driving.
From 1975 to 2020, the rate of passenger vehicle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 100,000 people declined by 62 percent for teenagers ages 16-19 (from 47.6 to 17.9), 43 percent for people ages 20-34 (from 38.7 to 22.0), 33 percent for people ages 35-69 (from 20.5 to 13.7), and 30 percent for people 70 and older (from 15.4 to 10.8). The teenage passenger vehicle driver fatal crash involvement rate rose in 2020 for the first time since 2016, and was 10% higher than the rate in 2019.
Among fatally injured teenage drivers in 2020, females were less likely than males to have high BACs. Among fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers ages 16-17, 20 percent of males and 12 percent of females had BACs at or above 0.08 percent. Among fatally injured drivers ages 18-19, 28 percent of males and 21 percent of females had BACs at or above 0.08 percent.
The state boasts many of the facilitative laws and policies we described above, including automatic voter registration, pre-registration, online registration, teens and youth serving as poll workers, and a state code that supports voter registration in schools through the following language:
The teen pregnancy rate in the United States has been declining in the past 20 years. In 2018, the United States teen birth rate was 17.4 births per 1,000 females between the ages 15 and 19. In 2019, it decreased to 16.9. Despite these lower rates, the U.S. continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate of all developed nations.
Teen pregnancy has substantial health, economic, and social costs. Pregnant teenagers are more likely to experience miscarriages, maternal illness (preeclampsia, hypertension, etc.), stillbirth, and neonatal death. Teenage mothers are also more likely to drop out of school and never return to raise a child. Teen mothers, therefore, often lack a high school diploma, let alone a college degree, and will likely face unemployment and poverty. Children of teen pregnancies are sometimes forced into foster care if the mother cannot care for them, where teenage females are twice as likely to become pregnant, creating a cycle.
One of the best ways to prevent teen pregnancies is using birth control methods, such as condoms or oral contraceptives, and providing easy access to such things. Comprehensive sex education in and outside of schools has been proven to be very effective, and sex education courses must be given to all genders. Additionally, mentorship from peers or older teens tends to be more comfortable and impactful than from parents. Some communities have set up mentorship programs to help encourage healthy sexuality discussions among teens.
Mississippi has the second-highest teen birth rate of 29.1 births per 1,000 women. This is an increase from 27.8 in 2018. The Arkansas-Mississippi Delta area has the highest birth rates, a study found, pointing to community norms and socioeconomic factors in the area that could compound to contribute to higher teen pregnancy rates, such as poverty, discrimination, lack of comprehensive sex education.
Coming in fifth is Alabama, with a teen birth rate of 25.6 births per 1,000 women. About 74% of teen births in Alabama are to older teens (ages 18-19), and 16% of teen births are to teens who already have children. Like other states with high teen birth rates, Alabama has its fair share of rural areas and is also one of the country's most religious states. Alabama has seen significant improvements in its teen birth rate in past decades, which has decreased by about 63% since 1991.
Texas's teen birth rate is 24.0, less than it was in 2018. Every year, around 35,000 women in Texas get pregnant before the age of 20. It is difficult for women to access reproductive services in Texas, which contributes to the high teen birth rate and why Texas has the highest rate of repeat-teen births. Other factors that researchers believe are contributing to this are a lack of sex education and abstinence-only programs.
Finishing the states with the highest teen pregnancy rates is Tennessee with 23.7 per 1,000. This is lower than its 2018 rate of 25.3. Unsurprisingly, the rural counties in Tennessee showed higher teen birth rates. The Tennessee Department of Health has made reducing the teen birth rate a priority, and their efforts are being seen. The Tennessee Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program (TAPPP) is one of the programs implemented to educate and mentor young teens and adults about healthy sexual relationships.
The summer of 2021 was the strongest in years for U.S. teenagers seeking work. Beset by labor shortages, businesses trying to come back from the COVID-19 pandemic hired nearly a million more teens than in the summer of 2020.
Overall, more than 6 million U.S. teens, or 36.6%, had a paying job for at least part of last summer, marking the highest teen summer employment rate since 2008, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accommodation and food services, arts and recreation, and manufacturing were among the sectors leading the teen hiring surge.
Many economists are predicting another strong job market for teens this summer. If that pans out, it would continue a turnaround from the low-water mark of 2010 and 2011 and suggest that the plunge in teen employment during the first pandemic summer of 2020 was an anomaly. 041b061a72